German Occupation of the Estonia, Latvia,

Lithuania, Belarus and North Russia

(Pskov & Leningrad regions)

 

Special Issues of Paper Tokens & Coupons

( money substitutes )

 

FIRST  TRIAL  CATALOG

by Ants Kulo & Juri Rudich

Eastern  region  Fabric  Point  tokens

                                                                      ü Ostland Spinnstoffwaren - Punktwertschein

                 ü Wi in Nord Chefgr. La Spinnstoffwaren - Punktwertschein

 

COMMODITY  tokens

                                                                                             ü  PrÄmienschein

                                                                                             ü  Zuckerschein

                                                                                             ü  Kleineisenwaren-Gutschein

                                                                                             ü  Petroleum-Gutschein

                                                                                             ü  Nadelschnittholz wurde verkauft

                                                                                             ü  Eisen

 

special  issues  for  local using

ü  Kreditchein der Zementfabrik PORT-KUNDA

                                                                              ü  SonnenblumenÖl Gutschein

                                                                              ü  MaschinenÖl Coupon

                                                                              ü  IepirkŠanas zimes

                                                                              ü  Papyros Gutschein

 

 

TALLINN

1999

 

 

            In this catalog the authors list, describe and value about

          90 different money substitutes, which were issued under German

          authority in the territory of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,

          Belarus & North Russia during World War II.

            These money substitutes were used in addition to the general

          legal circulated paper money - Reichs Credit Treasury Notes

          (Reichskreditkassen) with denominations: 50 Reichspfennig &

          1, 2, 5, 20, 50 Reichsmark ND(1939-45). These are listed &

          valued in SCWPM. Vol.2 and the authors dont refer to these

          Reichs notes in this catalog.

            The money substitutes described in this catalog were used

          for receiving goods & provision rather than as circulating money.

            This is the first catalog using this theme and the authors

          hope to receive remarks and supplements from all readers.

             Address for correspondence:

                  Juri Rudich, P.O.Box 201, Tallinn EE10503, Estonia.

                  Tel./FAX: (372) 6342238. E-mail: rudich@infonet.ee

 

         This catalog is printed in a limited edition of 100 copies.

         Personal number and name register each copy.

         All information of copies will be including in a special authors list.

 

         Copyright Ants Kulo & Juri Rudich

 

         ISBN 9985 - 60 - 625 - 6

 

 

         All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the

         copyright may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means -

         graphic, taping or information storage and retrieval system -

         without the permission of the authors.

 

                              Contents

 

                                                                catalog #  page

       I.Introductory information

       1.Authors remarks.....................................................1

       2.Map of region.......................................................2

       3.Regional information................................................2

      II.Eastern region fabric point tokens

       - Reichskommissar für das Ostland.....................................5

 

 

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

 

               Authors remarks

      PRICES. All prices are estimates in US$, based on the average retail

        market of 1999. The marking -- indicates that the item

        exists or may exist, but a pricing is impossible as no

        information about the item being offered or traded is available.

        It cant be concluded that such material is of great value.    

 

      BIBLIOGRAPHY. In this work the authors used the following literature:

      1.Catalog World War II Remembered by C.Frederick Schwan &

        Joseph E.Boling. BNR Press, 1995. USA.

 

      2.Supplement for the collectors catalogue. Issue #10(January 1997)

        -

        . ./ Ostland spinnstoffwaren -

        punktwertscheinen fur Flachs - und Wollablieferung. LETTLAND.

        by Igor Bukin. Riga, 1997. Latvia. (In this work the author analyzed

        more than 300 pcs of Latvian point tokens).

 

      3.Supplement for the collectors catalogue. Issue #13(January 1998)

        - Buying notes of Trade department (Lettland, 1942) by Igor Bukin.

       Riga, 1998. Latvia.

 

     4.Supplement for the collectors catalogue. Issue #14(05.1998)

        - LETTLAND. The Iron notes. 1942 by Igor Bukin. Riga, 1998. Latvia.

 

      5.Catalogue World II War Russian-German Occupations in Lithuania

        by Aleksandras KUBILAS. LKA, VILNIUS, 1997/98. Lithuania.

 

      6.Newspaper 1. July 1996. Article

       .

       by Oleg Paramonov. Moscow, 1996. Russia.

 

      7.Periodical Elva Filatelist 3 /1996. Article PORT-KUNDAD, mis

        need on? by H.Hiiemäe. Eesti / Estonia.

 

        The authors personally analyzed the following tokens used in

      Estonia: fabric point tokens - more than 350 pcs, premium tokens -

      about 1.200 pcs, tokens for sugar - more than 1.000 pcs, Port-Kunda

      notes - about 500 pcs and many others substitutes for paper money.    

        The authors give special thanks to Alexandras Kubilas(Lithuania)

      for the used 6 images from his book, to Igor Bukin(Latvia) for the

      used 2 images & information from his three professional articles in

      the supplement for the collectors catalogue, to Anatoli Lagutin

      (Estonia)for used his stock of premium tokens for analyze, to

      Lee Gordon(USA) for his 2 images of Byelarussian point tokens, great

     thanks to Andrew Clark(UK) for him help in correcting the English text.

        The authors hope for great interest this work and wait to receive

      remarks, supplement, requests, etc.

 

Map of the region

 

 

       The Republic of Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

     Many wars have been fought in Estonia because of its strategic location.

     During the time of independence, before WW II, the territory of the

     Republic of Estonia covered 47.549 sq. km - it is now 45.215 sq. km and has a

    population of 1,4 million. The capital is Tallinn (population in 1990 - 484.400).

       In February 1918, the peace talks between Soviet Russia and Germany

     broke down. The Russians forces and the Bolsheviks fell back to Russia in

     the face of the advancing German Army. Representatives of the larger

     parties in the Land Council formed the Estonian Salvation Committee, and

     on February 24, 1918, the Republic of Estonia was declared in Tallinn -

     and it became the first of the small national republics in Europe to be

     formed by its oppressed peoples. According to the Hitler - Stalin Pacts

     secret protocol(signed on August 23, 1939) Estonia became part of the SU

     sphere of influence and on June 17, 1940, the Red Army occupied Estonia.

     Thereafter there was, from 1941 to 1944, the Nazi German occupation. From

     the autumn of 1944 the Soviets regained the rule of Estonia. On August 20, 1991,

    the Parliament of the Estonian S.S.R voted to reassert the republics independence.   

 

       The Republic of Latvia is the central Baltic state in East Europe.

     The Republic of Latvia covers 64.600 sq. km and has a population of 2,6 million.

    The capital is Riga with a population of 916.500 in 1990.

       Latvian political parties formed into the Latvian Peoples Council which,

    on November 18, 1918, for the first time proclaimed the national independence

    of Latvia. On June 17, 1940, an unprovocated aggression was carried out against

    Latvia and Latvia was occupied by the Red Army troops. Within a few days of the

    Nazi attack on the USSR they entered Latvian territory and there followed the

    German occupation of 1941 - 1944. Latvia was retaken by the Soviets and

    reestablished as a member Soviet Socialist Republic of the USSR. Latvia declared

    its independence from the formed USSR on August 21,1991.    

 

       The Republic of Lithuania lies in the center of Europe (the geometrical

     center of the continent is in Eastern Lithuania, near the village of

     Bernotai, 25 km north of Vilnius), on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.

     The area of Lithuania is 65.200 sq. km and in 1990 Lithuanias population

     was 3.723.000. The capital is Vilnius (592.500 inhabitants).

       During WW I, Lithuania was occupied by the German Army in 1915.

     On February 16, 1918, the Lithuanian Council issued a decree on the

     restoration of independence. The republic was occupied by Soviet troops in

     June 15, 1940 and annexed to the USSR. Following the German occupation of

     1941 - 1944 the Red Army forced the Germans out of Lithuania and Soviet

     order was reestablished in the territory occupied by it.

       By the act of March 11, 1990, the Supreme Soviet proclaimed the independence

    of Lithuania and it was recognized by the United States on September 2, 1991,

    followed by the Soviet Government in Moscow on September 6.

 

       The Republic of Belarus (Byelorussia, Belorussia or White Russia -

     formerly Belorussian S.S.R.) is situated along the Western Dvina and

     Dnieper, bounded in the west by Poland, to the north by Latvia and

     Lithuania, to the east by Russia and the south by the Ukraine. It has an

     area of 207.600 sq. km. and a population of 4.8 million. Capital: Minsk.

       On February 25, 1918, Minsk was occupied by the Germans, and in the

     Brest - Litovsk peace treaty of March 3 between the Central powers and

     Soviet Russia the existence of Byelorussia was ignored. Nevertheless, on

     March 25, 1918 the National council proclaimed an independent republic.

     After the collapse of Germany the Soviet government repudiated the Brest-

     Litovsk treaty and on January 1, 1919, proclaimed a Belorussian S.S.R. In

     August 1919 Polish forces entered Minsk and occupied western Byelorussia.

     In 1922 the unoccupied occupied part of Byelorussia became a founder

     member of the USSR. In October 22, 1939, the Soviet army occupied Poland

     and part of western Byelorussia under a secret treaty signed on August 23

     between USSR and Germany.

       In during WW II Byelorussia was occupied by German Army from 1941 to

     1944. In 1944 the Red Army forced the Germans out of Byelorussia, and

     Soviet powers returned the republic to the USSR. In September 1991 the

     Republic of Belarus declared independence.

 

North Russia

       North Russia was named by the German administration during WW II and

     included parts of the Pskov and Leningrad regions which were occupied by

     the Nazis from late 1941 to starting 1944. The Leningrad region included

     territory up to the front line, which was placed about 20 km from Leningrad

    City, and to the coast of Ladoga lake. The Pskov region,occupied by the

    Germans, was not included only northern territory of this region.

 

Reichskommissar  fÜr  das  ostland  &

Wehrwirtschaftliche in Nord Chefgruppe

      After the German army had swept through the Baltic countries and invested

      Leningrad, the economic development of the Baltic area was important.

      Among the products that Germany controlled were textiles, fibers, metal

      products, kerosene and provision of first needs(sugar, sunflower oil,

      cigarettes & etc.). All products were limited and unavailable for free

      public sale using circulated money. In order to maximize the amount

      removed to the homeland the quantities used by the local inhabitants were

      rationed. The tokens and coupons described and valued in this catalog

      were the vehicle for that rationing.

 

 

                                      I. Eastern  region  Fabric  Point  tokens

 

             Ostland Spinnstoffwaren - Punktwertschein

       The title of these pieces translates as Token point value of spinning

     products of Eastern regions for surrender of flax and wool, but in

     general they are known as Eastern region fabric point token. The tokens

     where authorized by a decree of Der Reichskommissar fÜr das Ostland Henrih

     Lohse. General-Commissars in Reval (Tallinn), Riga, Wilna(Vilnius) and Minsk

    required to local Departments of Trade to issue exchange values, in points,

    from July 1942 for fabric and fabric products exchanged between suppliers and

    traders. These instructions valued 125 gr. of wool at 4 punkte and also

    established fabric point tokens in the values of 1, 3, 5 and 10 punkte.

    These tokens where to exchanged as a premium for the surrender of flax and wool.

    About fabric products, which sold for points, must be made mark in a consumer

    book of the surrender(on 8 or next page). These instructions were occasionally

    modified after July 1942.

 

       In addition to the full title given above the legend also states that

     the holder of this card is entitled to purchase X points worth of

     spinning products and after redemption, cancel by cutting in half.

     All tokens are bilingual, German and one of the five local languages.

 

       The front of the tokens for each region is the same except for the name

     in the upper left-hand corner; either Estland, or Lettland, or Litauen, or

     Weissruthenien(Weissruthenien / Belarus used the Russian language on Punkt

     token with expiration date 30.06.1943 and the Belarussian language on a

     Textil Punkt w/expiration date 31.12.1944). The vignette at the left is of

     a man carding flax whilst to the right is a woman shearing sheep. The legend

     around each vignette states Flax and wool blessing of the land.

     The Nazi crest is at bottom centre and is marked of Der Reichskommissar

     fÜr das Ostland(except Weissruthenien 1 Textil Punkt w/expiration date

     31.12.1944 which is marked Der Generalkommissar in Minsk.

 

       On the back both German and the local language is used to states how many

     points are required for each of eight items of clothing or fabric and

     explains that full schedules are available at shops. All tokens have one

     of four expiration dates given below the list of eight items. The date is

     either 30th June 1943 or 30th April 1944 or 31st December 1944 or 30th April 1945.

     Also on the back of most tokens is the imprint Lettlands Wertpapierdruckerei,

     Riga (Latvian printers of valuable papers, Riga), hereafter referred to as LW,R.

     This can be found with, and without, the printers control number 6308, hereafter

     referred to as LW,R #6308. The imprint appears in Latvian, instead of German,

     on some tokens; Rigas litografija un ofset spiestuve atl 3173(Rigas lithograph

     and offset printer, license 3173, hereafter referred to as RLuOSa 3173).

 

       The most common watermark is the word OST-OST repeating throughout the paper,

     but some tokens have a different watermark and some have none at all. Some tokens

     are seen with their corner cut off, possibly as a means of a cancellation.

 

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